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touch panel static electricity
Aug 01, 2018

TP static electricity common sense and ESD protection

1. Type of static electricity:

1. Static electricity

1. According to the theory of molecule and atomic structure, all substances in nature are made up of molecule, and molecule is made up of atom. The molecule of a simple substance consists of one or more identical atoms, and the molecule of a compound consists of two or more different atoms. Polymer materials have more complex atomic structure and contain more kinds and numbers of atoms. The atom is the smallest particle of all chemical elements. It consists of a positive nucleus and an electron with a negative rotating around the nucleus. The number and arrangement of the electrons vary from element to element.

2. In the natural state, the positive and negative charges in the atom are equal, and the matter is in the neutral state of electric equilibrium, that is, no charge. In electrostatics, an electrically charged neutral body is called an uncharged object. Under certain conditions, when this state of electrical equilibrium in a matter atom is broken, electrons are lost or obtained, the matter changes from a neutral state to a charged state. Electrified objects are called electrified bodies in terms of electrostatics. When a substance is obtained to form an electrified body, it is called electrification, and the charge is called a negative charge; when the charged body is formed, the charge is called a hole charged, and the charge is called a positive charge.

3. the phenomenon of electrification is called electrification. The electrification of matter is a natural phenomenon. According to the existence and changing state of electric charge, it can be divided into electrokinetic phenomena and electrostatic phenomena.  Electrostatic phenomena refer to the relatively stable state of static or slowly changing charges relative to the observer, whereas electrokinetic phenomena are the opposite. Obviously, in the case of static electricity, the magnetic effect caused by the static charge or the motion is very slow, so the effect of the magnetic field is negligible than the electric field effect.

4. electrostatic may occur for a variety of reasons, such as friction between objects, electric field induction, dielectric polarization, and many physical processes, such as charged particles, which may lead to static electricity.

Two, the category of static electricity

Electrostatic protection materials are usually classified by their electrical resistivity. It is divided into electrostatic conductor (electrostatic conductive) material and electrostatic dissipation (dissipative electrostatic) material. An early classification of antistatic materials

1. electrostatic conductor material

The material that refers to the electrical conductivity of its surface or in the body, generally classified the electrostatic conductor materials with the surface resistivity less than or equal to or equal to 1 x 105 Omega /m2 or the volume resistivity less than or equal to or equal to 1 * 104 Omega cm. In addition, the material with the surface resistivity less than 104 OMEGA / m2 or the volume resistivity less than or equal to 1 x 103 Omega cm is defined as an electrostatic shielding material, that is, the electrostatic shielding material is part of the electrostatic conductor material.

2. electrostatic dissipative material

A material that can rapidly dissipate the electrostatic charge inside its surface or object. The resistivity range has some different standards, and more standards (such as the current MIL standard and the IEC draft issued in the last two years) stipulate that the surface resistivity is greater than 1 x 105 OMEGA / m2 but less than or equal to 1 x 1012 OMEGA / m2, or the volume resistivity is greater than 1 x 104 Omega cm, but less than 1 * 1011 Omega cm  The electrostatic shielding material is an electrostatic dissipative material.

3. antistatic material

Some standards, such as the American Standard MIL-HDBK-263 of 1980, are defined as antistatic materials with a surface resistivity of more than 1 x 109 OMEGA / m2 but less than and equal to 1 * 1014 OMEGA / m2.  Many commonly used materials are in fact within this range, such as thin lamellar thin layer materials, high resistance body conductive plastics, clean cotton, hard fibreboard, products, paper products, and so on. The revised version A, issued in 1991, changed the classification method and no longer used the concept of antistatic materials. In the discussion on the standards of antistatic materials by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), experts tend to think that the concept of "antistatic material" is general and that it is not suitable for use.

4. insulating material

Insulating materials refer to materials whose resistivity exceeds the upper limit of static dissipative materials.  Insulating materials are not in the category of electrostatic protection materials. Because its partition is connected with the static dissipative material, the standards are not identical. More and more authoritative current standard stipulates that materials with surface resistivity more than 1 x 1012 OMEGA / m2, or volume resistivity more than 1 * 1011 Omega cm are insulating materials

Two, static electricity common sense:

Static electricity is an objective natural phenomenon. There are many ways of producing it, such as contact, friction, flushing and so on. The basic process can be summed up as: contact, charge, transfer, formation of dielectric layer and charge separation. The maximum static electricity of equipment or human body can reach tens of tens of volts and tens of thousands of volts under normal operating conditions. From hundreds to thousands of volts, the human body can bring thousands of volts to thousands volts of static electricity because of their actions and contact with other objects, such as separation, friction, or induction. Static electricity is the result of the loss of balance between positive and negative charges in the local range. It is a kind of electrical energy, with the presence of objects, with high potential, low electricity and small amount. The characteristics of short current and action time.

The main measures of electrostatic control are electrostatic leakage and dissipation, electrostatic neutralization, electrostatic shielding and grounding, humidification, etc.

The breakdown damage of components caused by electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the most common and serious electrostatic hazard in electronic industry. It can be divided into hard breakdown and soft breakdown. Hard breakdown is caused by dielectric breakdown, burnout or permanent failure, and soft breakdown.

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